Academic Articles

As we come across useful academic articles and tools related to Gender Justice we will link them here. Note that these resources are hosted on external platforms and not all of these offer open access and in which case charges are likely to apply for for access.

Gender-based violence

Social justice tools and articles

Abramsky et al. 2011. What factors are associated with recent intimate partner violence? findings from the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence. BMC Public Health 2011, 11:109. 

Abstract: Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a global public health and human rights concern. Despite a growing body of research into risk factors for IPV, methodological differences limit the extent to which comparisons can be made between studies. We used data from ten countries included in the WHO Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence to identify factors that are consistently associated with abuse across sites, in order to inform the design of IPV prevention programs. […]

Devries K.M., Mak J., Bacchus L.J., Child J.C., Falder G., et al. (2013) Intimate Partner Violence and Incident Depressive Symptoms and Suicide Attempts: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies. PLoS Med 10(5): e1001439. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001439

Abstract: Depression and suicide are responsible for a substantial burden of disease globally. Evidence suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV) experience is associated with increased risk of depression, but also that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of violence. […] In women, IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, and depressive symptoms with incident IPV. IPV was associated with incident suicide attempts. In men, few studies were conducted, but evidence suggested IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms. There was no clear evidence of association with suicide attempts.

Gala,  S. & Gross-Schaefer, A. 2016. Sexual Assault: The Crisis That Blindsided Higher Education. International Journal of Social Science Studies, Vol. 4, No. 8; August 2016

Abstract: This paper examines the history of university oversight of sexual assault cases and why sexual assault has become such a problem on college and university campuses. Next the paper examines existing laws that govern how colleges handle sexual assault cases. Subsequently, this article discusses the loopholes in existing laws that allow institutions of higher learning to not only ignore the problem of sexual assault, but also underreport incidents of sexual assault. Current proposed legislation and administrative actions are explored that attempt to close these loopholes forcing universities to answer for their failure to handle sexual assault cases properly and revamp their existing policies to better protect victims of sexual assault. Finally, the authors provide potential solutions for what is likely the next big crisis in higher education.

Gamlin, J. B., &  Hawkes, S.J. 2018. Masculinities on the Continuum of Structural Violence: The Case of Mexico’s Homicide Epidemic. Social Politic Volume 22 2018-Issue 1. 

Abstract: […] An analysis of statistics and local research studies on male homicide is used to understand how impoverishment and extreme inequality can undermine men’s capacity to access a dignified standard of living and exercise their masculinity, in the process of which many draw on interpersonal violence as a resource for respect and manhood.

Gaynor, N. and Cronin, M. 2017‘A woman’s place…’: community-based approaches to gender-based violence in Malawi. Community Development Journal, (Oxford University Press). 

Abstract: One in five women has experienced gender-based violence (GBV) in Malawi and its incidence is reported to be increasing. The importance of cultural norms, practices, discourses and behaviours in both driving and addressing such violence is now well recognized. So too is the attendant need to involve men as well as women in community interventions to address this. In this context, this article draws on field research conducted in 2016 in two districts in Northern and Southern Malawi exploring the successes and challenges posed by community-based approaches (CBAs) to tackling GBV. […]

Hossain et al. 2014. Working with men to prevent intimate partner violence in a conflict-affected setting: a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial in rural Côte d’Ivoire. BMC Public Health 2014 14:339.

Abstract: […] This trial points to the value of adding interventions working with men alongside community activities to reduce levels of IPV in conflict-affected settings. The intervention significantly influenced men’s reported behaviours related to hostility and conflict management and gender equitable behaviours. […]

Javaid, A. 2016. Feminism, masculinity and male rape: bringing male rape ‘out of the closet’. Journal of Gender Studies, Volume 25, 2016 – Issue 3.

Abstract: […] This paper argues that, although feminist explanations of rape are robust and comprehensive, male victims of rape have largely been excluded from this field of research. While feminism has enabled the victimisation of women to be recognised, further understanding of the victimisation of men is required […]

Machimana, E.G. & Nhlanhla, P. 2020. Male Youths’ Perceptions, Knowledge and Beliefs of Alcohol Misuse and HIV Prevention. Open Journal for Sociological Studies, 2020, 4(1), 1-12.

Abstract: This study investigated alcohol misuse associated with risky sexual behaviour, which poses a challenge in South Africa, where the rate of HIV transmission is high. Southern Africa faces the challenge of HIV risk behaviour, which is linked to the misuse of alcohol. The use of the qualitative research methodology was appropriate, as the researchers were interested in gaining a deeper insight into and understanding of male youth’s perceptions. The findings also indicate that alcohol has a negative impact on HIV prevention. Unprotected sex, which is connected to alcohol misuse, is one of the ways in which the HIV pandemic is perpetuated. We recommend that a policy should be developed and implemented, with regards to the integration school programs on HIV and alcohol use, in order to enable young people to prevent HIV infection. Raise ongoing awareness of alcohol abuse in communities, in order to reduce the rates of HIV transmission.

Makongoza, M. & Nduna, M. 2017. Awareness and Rejection Accounts of Intimate Partner Violence by Young Women in Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.

Abstract: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most prevalent form of interpersonal violence experienced by women in South Africa. A study conducted with young women from South Africa, aged 13 to 23 years, estimated that 42% experienced physical violence from their intimate partners. The subtle and nuanced social dynamics of IPV are less understood owing to little qualitative research on this subject. This study qualitatively explored how young women perceive and experience IPV. […] Findings indicate a progressive shift of perceptions from absolute tolerance of relationship violence to rejection. […]

McCloskey, L.A. 2016. The Effects of Gender-based Violence on Women’s Unwanted Pregnancy and Abortion. Yale Journal of biology and Medecine, Volume 29(2). 

Abstract: The aim of this research is to understand how gender-based violence across the life-course affects the likelihood of abortion. Women outpatients (n = 309) revealed their exposure to four different forms of gender-based abuse: child sexual abuse (25.7 percent), teenage physical dating violence (40.8 percent), intimate partner violence (43.1 percent), and sexual assault outside an intimate relationship (22 percent). Logistic regressions revealed that no single form of gender-based abuse predicted abortion. The cumulative effect of multiple forms of abuse did increase the odds of having an abortion […]

Bluen, K. 2017. Gender(ed) perspectives: An analysis of the ‘gender perspective’ in the Office of the Prosecutor of the ICC’s Policy Paper on Sexual and Gender-based Crimes. Policy Brief: Institute for Justice and Reconciliation.

Abstract: […] the Policy Paper has evolved the Rome Statute’s definition to incorporate both protection based on sexual orientation, and a partial inclusion of the role of social construction, countless individuals fall outside the scope of the ICC’s vision of gender justice. Individuals whose gendered or sexual identities do not pertain to a fixed binary, nor a tethering of gender to biological sex, remain at best ambiguously covered and at worst, excluded. This is not only exclusionary to those who fall outside of this ambit, but equally reproduces problematic constructions of gender, entrenching power dynamics on the basis thereof.

Connell, Raewyn. 2011. Gender And Social Justice: Southern PerspectivesSouth African Review of Sociology, 42:3, 103-115, DOI: 10.1080/21528586.2011.621242

Abstract: Sociology has a long but troubled history of engagement with gender issues. Development of the field is now vitally dependent on perspectives from the global South. Issues of collective voice, societal violence, structural transformation, and the relation between gender and land, are among the issues that emerge strongly from the social experience of the colonised world. A re-thinking of gender – beyond the currently influential northern perspectives – is required, which will involve a rethinking of the historicity of gender, a reconsideration of embodiment, and a recognition of world-level gender dynamics. Sociology is a resource for documenting and understanding issues of gender justice, in relation to material inequality, recognition and embodiment. Social science generally is a resource for the democratisation of society on a world scale.

Cornwall, A. & Rivas, A. 2015. From ‘gender equality and ‘women’s empowerment’ to global justice: reclaiming a transformative agenda for gender and development. Third World Quarterly, 36:2, 396-415, DOI: 10.1080/01436597.2015.1013341

Abstract: The language of ‘gender equality’ and ‘women’s empowerment’ was mobilised by feminists in the 1980s and 1990s as a way of getting women’s rights onto the international development agenda. Their efforts can be declared a resounding success. The international development industry has fully embraced these terms. From international NGOs to donor governments to multilateral agencies the language of gender equality and women’s empowerment is a pervasive presence and takes pride of place among their major development priorities. And yet, this article argues, the fact that these terms have been eviscerated of conceptual and political bite compromises their use as the primary frame through which to demand rights and justice. Critically examining the trajectories of these terms in development, the article suggests that if the promise of the post-2015 agenda is to deliver on gender justice, new frames are needed, which can connect with and contribute to a broader movement for global justice.

Institute of Development Studies, Interactions for Gender Justice.  Sexuality and Social Justice: A Toolkit. [online] 

Abstract: […] a user-friendly resource to assist activists, civil society organisations, researchers and others in understanding some of the most pressing issues relating to sexuality, gender identity and social justice. In this site you will find specially-commissioned content including: up-to-date case studies; practical tools; summaries of current debates; explanations of legal terms; and, options for mobilising. These are included alongside a wide range of further resources and information produced by others, that you may find useful in your work.

Liu A.H., Shair-Rosenfield S., Vance L.R., Csata Z., 2018. Linguistic Origins of Gender Equality and Women’s Rights. Gender and Society Volume 32 2018-Issue 1. 

Abstract: In this article, we examine how the language spoken in a country can affect individual attitudes about gender equality and subsequently the level of legal rights afforded to women. This is because the feature of a language—specifically whether it requires speakers to make gender distinctions—can perpetuate popular attitudes and beliefs about gender inequality. To test this argument, we first identify a correlation between the gender distinction of a language and individual gender-based attitudes among World Values Survey respondents […]

Pollitt A.M., Robinson, B.A. &  Umberson, D. 2018. Gender Conformity, Perceptions of Shared Power, and Marital Quality in Same- and Different-Sex Marriages. Gender and Society Volume 32 2018-Issue 1.

Abstract: Research on gender inequality within different-sex marriages shows that women do more unpaid labor than men, and that the perception of inequality influences perceptions of marital quality. Yet research on same-sex couples suggests the importance of considering how gender is relational. Past studies show that same-sex partners share unpaid labor more equally and perceive greater equity than do different-sex partners, and that lesbian, gay, and bisexual people are less gender conforming than heterosexuals. However, studies have not considered how gender conformity might shape inequalities and marital quality within same- and different-sex unions. In this study, we analyze dyadic data from both spouses in same- and different-sex marriages to explore how sex of spouse and gender conformity influence perceptions of shared power within the relationship, which, in turn, influences marital quality […]

Development and organisational tools

GBV research tools and methodologies

Bystydzienski, J. M., & Brown, A. 2014. “I Just Want to Help People”: Young Women’s Gendered Engagement with Engineering. Feminist Formations Volume 24 2012-Issue 3. 

Abstract: Research on women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has focused scant attention on how young women engage with the gendered construction of engineering as they decide whether or not to enter the field. Drawing on data from a study of more than a hundred diverse girls who participated in a National Science Foundation intervention and research project titled Female Recruits Explore Engineering (FREE), the article shows that their involvement with engineering is strongly gendered. The study participants were aware that engineering is male-dominated and not particularly open to women […]

Correll, S.J. 2017. SWS 2016 Feminist Lecture: Reducing Gender Biases in Modern Workplaces: A Small Wins Approach to Organizational Change. Gender and Society Volume 31 2017-Issue 6. 

Abstract: The accumulation and advancement of gender scholarship over past decades has led us to the point where gender scholars today can leverage our deep understanding of the reproduction of gender inequality to develop and test models of change. In this lecture, I present one such model designed to reduce the negative effects of stereotypical biases on women’s workplace outcomes. After synthesizing the literature on stereotyping and bias and showing the limits of past change efforts, I develop a “small wins” model of change. Key to this model is that researchers work with teams of managers to produce concrete, implementable actions that produce visible results. […]

Rennison, C., and Addington, L. 2015. Rape Against Adolescent and Emerging Adult Females: Using NIBRS to Compare Contexts and Inform Policy. Justice Research and Policy. 16, 2, pp. 165-184.

Abstract: Increased research attention to sexual violence in recent decades has resulted in greater understanding about these crimes. This work consistently finds that younger females are at the greatest risk for sexual assault and that certain correlates are related to sexual violence. Little is known about the situational contexts in which sexual assault, particularly rape, occurs as well as possible differences between adolescent and emerging adult female victims. We analyze 2012 National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data using conjunctive analysis of case configurations to identify the situational contexts most commonly occurring for these age-groups for rapes reported to police. We also discuss the policy implications of our findings and how NIBRS might be used to better inform policy.

Schofield et al. 2010. Understanding Men’s Health and Illness: A Gender-relations Approach to Policy, Research, and Practice. Journal of American College Health, 48,6, pp. 247-256.

Abstract: Men’s health has emerged as an important public concern that may require new kinds of healthcare interventions and increased resources. Considerable uncertainty and confusion surround prevailing understandings of men’s health, particularly those generated by media debate and public policy, and health research has often operated on oversimplified assumptions about men and masculinity. A more useful way of understanding men’s health is to adopt a gender-relations approach. This means examining health concerns in the context of men’s and women’s interactions with each other, and their positions in the larger, multidimensional structure of gender relations. Such an approach raises the issue of differences among men, which is a key issue in recent research on masculinity and an important health issue. The gender-relations approach offers new ways of addressing practical issues of healthcare for men in college environments.

Vogel, I. 2012. Review of the use of ‘Theory of Change’ in international development. Review Report. UK Department of International Development.

Abstract: ‘Theory of change’ is an outcomes-based approach which applies critical thinking to the design, implementation and evaluation of initiatives and programmes intended to support change in their contexts. It is being increasingly used in international development by a wide range of governmental, bilateral and multi-lateral development agencies, civil society organisations, international non-governmental organisations and research programmes intended to support development outcomes. […]

Benschop, Y. & Verloo, M. 2006. Sisyphus’ Sisters: Can Gender Mainstreaming Escape the Genderedness of Organizations? Journal of Gender Studies, Volume 15 2006 -Issue 1.

Abstract: Currently, gender mainstreaming is presented as bringing new élan to gender equality policies. Gender mainstreaming is a gender equality strategy that aims to transform organizational processes and practices by eliminating gender biases in existing routines, involving the regular actors in this transformation process. In this article, we question the aspirations of gender mainstreaming. Can gender mainstreaming escape the genderedness of organizations; can it genuinely effect change, or does it inevitably become compromised? […]

Daly, M. E. 2005. Gender Mainstreaming in Theory and Practice. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society, Volume 12 2005 -Issue 3. 

Abstract: This article utilizes the findings of a recently completed, eight-country research project to visit some key issues in the theory and practice of gender mainstreaming. The research results indicate that gender mainstreaming is a diverse entity when looked at from a cross national perspective but rather hollow when considered within the national setting. To the extent that there is a “common core” to gender mainstreaming in action across countries, it lies in the tendency to apply the approach in a technocratic way and to be non-systemic in compass. […]

Gutierrez et al. 2016. Do Domestic Violence Courts Work? A Meta-Analytic Review Examining Treatment and Study Quality. Justice Research and Policy, 17, 2, pp. 75-99.

Abstract: Domestic violence courts (DVCs) have become an increasingly popular model in the problem-solving court system. To date, there have been no efforts to summarize the extant literature regarding the impact of DVCs on recidivism. The present study is a meta-analysis of 20 DVC outcome studies reporting on 26 unique DVC samples. The results indicated that DVCs are having a positive impact (i.e., lower odds) on general recidivism (odds ratio [OR] = .81, 95% CI [0.68, 0.98], k = 18) as well as domestic violence recidivism (OR = .81, 95% CI [0.67, 0.97], k = 21), compared to domestic violence offenders processed through the traditional court system. These results, however, became nonsignificant when considering studies of sound methodological quality (as assessed by the Collaborative Outcome Data Committee guidelines). The study also conducted a preliminary investigation of treatment quality (adherence to risk, need, and responsivity [RNR] principles) in the DVC literature. The results indicated that adherence to the RNR principles was low but significantly related to greater treatment effects. Future research should aim to increase the quality of evaluation designs and the courts should look to existing offender rehabilitation literature to inform best practices with domestic violence offenders.

Jiménez Sánchez, C. 2016  Refugee women in the Sahrawi camps: towards gender equality . International Journal of Gender Studies in Developing Societies, Volume 1, Issue 4. 

Abstract: This paper examines the different roles women acquire during their experience in post-war refugee settlements. It focuses on the consequences of these new roles in the context of the Sahrawi conflict. The core of the paper addresses the particular form of management of the Tindouf Refugee Camps, which are run by the Polisario Front with the participation of the National Union of Sahrawi Women (UNMS), among others. […] The paper concludes by taking into account the fragility of the concept of peace, and observing whether the parties have adopted a gender dimension in the reconstruction and peace strategies.

Pearse, R. & Connell, R. 2016. Gender Norms and the Economy: Insights from Social Research.  Feminist Economics, 22:1, 30-53, DOI: 10.1080/13545701.2015.1078485

Abstract: Feminist economics has taken up the concept of gender norms, most commonly conceived as a constraint on women’s voice and gender equality. This contribution examines the concept of gender norms and summarizes key insights from sociology and other social sciences. Norms do not float free: they are materialized in specific domains of social life and are often embedded in institutions. An automatic process of “socialization” cannot explain the persistence of discriminatory norms. Norms change in multiple ways, both in response to broad socioeconomic change and from the dynamics of gender relations themselves. Restructuring of gender orders, and diversity and contradictions in gender norms, give scope for activism. The rich literature on normativity supports some but not all approaches in feminist economics and indicates new possibility for the field.

Walby. S. 2005. Gender Mainstreaming: Productive Tensions in Theory and Practice. Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State and Society, Volume 12 2005 -Issue 3. 

Abstract: Gender mainstreaming is an essentially contested concept and practice. It involves the reinvention, restructuring, and rebranding of a key part of feminism in the contemporary era. It is both a new form of gendered political and policy practice and a new gendered strategy for theory development. As a practice, gender mainstreaming is a process to promote gender equality. It is also intended to improve the effectivity of mainline policies by making visible the gendered nature of assumptions, processes, and outcomes. However, […]